Agreement In Society

it does not care that self-preservation is rationally sought through a Community agreement with others and proceeds to a second natural law; Other authors have argued that membership in society is not necessarily adherence to one`s government. To do this, the government must be established according to a governmental constitution compatible with the general unwritten constitutions of nature and society. [24] The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed theory of contracts was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). According to Hobbes, the life of individuals in the state of nature was “lonely, poor, wicked, brutal and short,” a state in which self-interest and the absence of rights and contracts prevented the “social” or society. Life was “anarchic” (without leadership or concept of sovereignty). Individuals in the state of nature were apolitical and asocial. It is in this natural state that the social contract succeeds. According to Hobbes, the justification for political commitment is as follows: since men are inherently selfish but rational, they will choose to submit to the authority of a sovereign in order to be able to live in a civil society favorable to their own interests. Hobbes argues for this by imagining man in his natural state, or in other words, the state of nature.

In the state of nature, which is purely hypothetical according to Hobbes, men are natural and exclusively selfish, they are more or less equal to one another (even the strongest man can be killed in their sleep), there are limited resources and yet there is no power that forces people to work together. Faced with these conditions in the state of nature, Hobbes concludes that the state of nature would be unbearably brutal. In the state of nature, every man is always afraid of losing his other life. They are not able to ensure the long-term satisfaction of their needs or desires. Long-term or complex cooperation is not possible, because the state of nature can be well described as a state of total distrust. Faced with the reasonable assumption that most people want above all to avoid their own death, he concludes that the state of nature is the worst possible situation in which people can find themselves. This is the state of eternal and inevitable war. According to Burke, the social contract is not a formal agreement that our ancestors made to create an artificial society based on mutual protection and material utility. On the contrary, the true social contract, as Burke sees it, is an eternal constitution in which individuals who remember their ancestors and the rising generation understand that they are the mere guardians of civilization.

To this end, customs, convention, prejudices and rules become tools of social protection, because “the individual is stupid, but the species is wise”. The central assertion of social contract theory is that law and political order are not natural creations, but human creations. The social contract and the political order it creates are simply the means to an end – the utility of the individuals involved – and only to the extent that they fulfill their part of the agreement. Hobbes argued that the government is not a party of the original treaty and that citizens are not obliged to submit to the government if it is too weak to act effectively, to suppress factionalism and civil unrest. According to other social contract theorists, if the government does not guarantee its natural rights (Locke) or fulfill the best interests of society (called “general will” by Rousseau), citizens can withdraw their obligation of obedience or change direction through elections or other means, including, if necessary, violence. . . .